Fabric

A Secure Compute Substrate for Self-Enforcing Contracts

E. Martindale, J. Paul Morrison, J. Dilley Reviewers: J. Paul Morrison, J. Dilley

0.1.0-drafting

Warning! This document is a draft and has not received significant review. Implement these ideas at your own risk!

Abstract

We introduce Fabric, a new protocol for securely establishing and executing peer-to-peer agreements surrounding the exchange of arbitrary information. Coupled with a resilient trust anchor, such as the Bitcoin blockchain, Fabric enables secure multi-party computations which preserve the privacy of their participants while retaining integrity across otherwise disparate networks.

We present a distributed messaging protocol as an alternative to the current client-server model of the World Wide Web, instead implementing an "information market" for voluntary participants which agree upon a common point of reference. We further extend the document-oriented basis of the Web with a cryptographically-secure version control system, enabling accurate and reliable updates to applications which may require shared state.

1. Introduction

Despite the backdrop of a fundamentally free market, modern economies remain tightly constrained by monopolies on contract enforcement. Recent developments in distributed systems have offered reprieve from the requirements of these centralized services, but leave much to be desired with regards to awareness & adoption. Significant capital investment has been made into infrastructure which relies on these monopolies, creating momentum which further reinforces their authority.

Any approach to developing a privacy-preserving contract enforcement platform should operate effectively in adversarial environments, obviating the use of components which already reliably solve this problem. One such system is the Bitcoin network, which secures & maintains a distributed ledger by way of economic incentives. In this environment, fraud is expensive, allowing for the accumulation of trust over time without requiring a central coordinator.

1.1. Bitcoin

Bitcoin was introduced by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008 as an to alternative fiat currency, and has since garnered international attention as a catalyst for significant economic change. By replacing the role of a central bank in the issuance of money, it sets the foundation for a new market structure, one backed by thermodynamic assurances and cryptographic guarantees. These newly available properties manifest a wide array of applications, but also serve to expand the availability of financial services to a global market.

One of Bitcoin's most interesting components is its blockchain, a highly replicated data structure which preserves a history for its consumers. Using Bitcoin's blockchain, we can reliably timestamp information and assert the existence of a document in a mathematically-provable fashion, all without revealing the contents of the document itself.

By relying on Bitcoin to address the challenges in achieving global consensus over a unified record of history, we can turn our attention to solving the problem of securely computing meaningful results from encrypted information.

1.1.1. Smart Contracts

Bitcoin also offers Script, a stack-based programming language for describing validation requirements to as-of-yet unknown parties. Script offers a list of pre-defined instructions known as "opcodes", which can be composed into larger programs which may exhibit more complex behavior. A typical Bitcoin script looks as follows:

OP_DUP OP_HASH160 <RecipientPubKeyHash> OP_EQUAL OP_CHECKSIG

When combined with a digital signature, this small program can be used to construct a new transaction which will be checked for validity by the network before being accepted as a "spend" of funds previously sent to the recipient. This enables a form of "carry-forward" state management, where changes to global state are only accepted by the network upon the provision of a valid proof.

As Script does not offer the ability to iterate over arbitrary collections, it lends itself easily to highvolume finite-state computations with predictable costs and behaviors. These properties are convenient for efficiently validating monetary transactions, which allows for a separation of concerns when building more complex applications.

1.1.1.1. Multi-Signature Transactions

One of Script's most powerful features is its ability to lock funds into smart contracts which can only become spendable when signed by a specific group of parties in a pre-defined subset. While Bitcoin's implementation leaves much to be desired (limited in size of the participating group, some bugs are also preserved intentionally to maintain compatibility with legacy implementations).

1.1.1.2. Hash Time-Locked Transactions

In addition to simple transfers, smart contracts deployed to the Bitcoin network may be invalid until some future date using a mechanism known as Hash Time-Locked Transactions, or HTLCs. These specially-crafted transactions can be used to construct simple logic trees dependent upon network state, such as offering a "failover" mode for funds not spent by a particular date. One such example:

<AnchorBlockHeight+1008> OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY OP_IF
<SenderPubKey> OP_EQUALVERIFY
OP_ELSE
<RecipientPubKey> OP_EQUALVERIFY
OP_ENDIF
OP_CHECKSIG

This program allows a payment to be returned to its sender after 1008 blocks, or roughly 1 week assuming Bitcoin continues to operation normally. Combined with other features of the Script language, this becomes an incredibly powerful tool for building complex decision trees which are dependent upon information outside of the control of the originator.

1.1.1.3: Zero-Knowledge Contingent Payments

Script further offers the ability to compute simple hashes in the form of the OP_SHA256 opcode, which eponymously produces the SHA256 digest of some input data. By combining this with other elements, we can construct a powerful form of smart contract known as a "Zero-Knowledge Contingent Payment", or ZKCP.

This tool enables a buyer to publish an order for an arbitrary asset, including documents and other information, without knowing the seller ahead of time. Any seller with access to the desired information may construct a new transaction which fulfills the order by revealing the document to the buyer. Such a contract might appear as follows:

OP_SHA256
<Y> OP_EQUAL
OP_IF
<Seller Pubkey>
OP_ELSE
<AnchorBlockHeight+1008> OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY OP_DROP
<Buyer Pubkey>
OP_ENDIF
OP_CHECKSIG

This program returns funds to the buyer after a specified number of blocks (again, roughly one week), but allows a seller to redeem the funds by supplying the document as the RedeemScript (not provided) before executing the contract.

1.1.2. Limitations

Script, and Bitcoin at large, contain several limititations which deserve further improvement. For example, limited capability for manipulating data is provided by Script, which has historically restricted the growth of chain storage requirements, but makes the construction of useful data difficult. Future improvements have been discussed with regards to enabling these behaviors, but further research is required before safely enabling these changes on the main Bitcoin network without endangering user funds.

For simplicity's sake, we restrict our scope to applications which can run on the Bitcoin network today.

1.2: Homomorphic Encryption

Cryptographers have long been excited about the prospect of computing over encrypted information, which has widespread implications surrounding data privacy and information security. Known as "homomorphic" encryption, programs implementing these schemes never have to decrypt application state, allowing for the participation of untrusted parties in untrusted systems. One of Fabric's applications is to implement Fully Homomorphic Encryption, or FHE, so first we provide some background on the math.

1.2.1: Pallier Systems

One basic composition which provides useful functionality is the Paillier cryptosystem, introduce by Pascal Paillier in 1999. This probabilistic method offers addition and multiplication of hidden values, returning sums and products respectively without revealing their values.

1.2.2: Partially Homomorphic Encryption

TODO

1.2.3: Fully Homomorphic Encryption

In addition to the general schemes above, an algorithm which can compute arbitrary functions is known as a Fully Homomorphic Encryption scheme, or FHE. As these systems do not require

1.3: Multi-Party Computations

Fabric aims to provide data security across a fully decentralized network, that is, one without any requisite third party. As participants in such a network are not necessarily favorable actors, a strategy to protect data while simultaneously allowing for computations on said data is necessary for such a system to be viable.

We build on Baum's work on secure computations, taking advantage of recent advances to extend existing models to include n-party computations. Specifically, we utilize a hierarchical secure multi-party computation, which splits our network into a hierarchy of equally-sized MPCs which are then used in sum to compute the finalized output. As these units are completely independent, we can parallelize the work at each level of the hierarchy.

Traditional software programs are composed as a list of instructions which are typically executed in single-machine, single-process environments. Workloads in these environments typically do not scale beyond the resources available to single machines, roughly 4GB for 32-bit architectures and otherwise prohibitively expensive for average users at scales beyond 32GB.

One approach to tackling this problem is to divide complex programs into smaller components, which is useful for workloads which do not require extensive iteration over large quantities of data. Fabric adopts this philosophy, requiring that programs be implemented as pure functions, wherein a single input is passed to the program, some computation is performed, and a singular output provided as the return value.

Fabric's computational model can be described in the following context:

ƒ(x) ⇒ Δx'

Where some program ƒ produces an output equivalent to the delta between input x and resulting state x' .

In a technique known as function composition, complex behaviors can be described using simple primitives, a core tenet of the UNIX philosophy.

An Example

Suppose some set of participants P each have a collection of private documents D, with

1.3.1: Simple Circuits

1.3.2: Polynomial Circuits

1.4: Market Dynamics

Participants in a Fabric-speaking network may compete for contracts, earning digital currency in exchange for processing "work orders" made available to them through the peer-to-peer network. Included is a simple programming language for the construction of deterministic, formallyverifiable smart contracts, which are then broadcast to network participants for execution.

1.4.1: Information Asymmetry

2: Architecture

Orders in the Fabric network are effectively "requests for computation": cryptographic commitments to payment, known as a [Zero-Knowledge Contingent Payment][zkcp], in exchange for the output of a requested program. When the required computation is complete, the fulfilling party is able to claim the payment in the network — represented as an unspent transaction output to be later broadcast on the anchor chain.

Contracts requiring secure execution may be divided into smaller sub-programs, broadcast to the network as discrete instructions, and later re-composed into a finalized output. In this way, Fabric implements secure, multi-party computations for general-purpose programs, allowing for a wide range of privacy-protecting applications.

Figure 1: an overview of process flow in Fabric

Fabric Architecture Overview Layer 2 Layer 3 block n block n+1 block n+2 ... L1: Trust Anchor (the Bitcoin Blockchain) block n block n+1 block n+2 ... L2: Domain-Specific Sidechain (RSK, Drivechain, etc.) HTLC 0 HTLC+1 HTLC+2 ... L2: Lightning φ0 φ1 φ2 φ3 φ3 φ... root n root n+1 root n+2 L3: State Bubble φ0 φ1 φ2 φ3 φ3 φ... root n root n+1 root n+2 L3: State Bubble (...) Charlie David Eve Frank ... Workers loop

Definitions: ARC: Application Resource Contract — source code for CAN: Content-Addressable Network — long-term storage for documents indexed by their hash

2.1: Network Topology

2.2: Encryption

To preserve user privacy, all connections are encrypted after an initial handshake using an ephemeral key which rotates on a per-message basis. While we do not detail the encryption protocol in this paper, the Noise Protocol can be used as a reference implementation.

3: Protocol

3.1: Primitives

3.1.1: Channels

Channels are duplex communication streams between objects in Fabric. They are exposed to the user as Subscriptions, as channels typically involve an exchange of value.

3.1.1.1: Mechanics

Following a Channel creates a Subscription object, which contains a commitment to the contract specified in the Channel . At any point in time, the signatory for the Channel may "settle" the contract, claiming the funds agreed upon as per the series of events (Operations) sent across the Channel .

Similarly, the subscriber (creator of the Subscription object) may settle the contract at any time, closing out any further agreements by broadcasting the latest commitment to the channel.

A simple algorithm is proposed for computing trust between peers, using quadratic expansion to compose a stable network over long periods of time.

3.2: Message Semantics

The definition of our messaging language is intended to human-readable, as debugging distributed systems is notoriously difficult. All logs are stored unencrypted, as they should be thrown away within a reasonable timeframe as disk utilization remains in high demand (see § 8: Economics)

3.3: Message Ordering

3.3.1: Phase 0: Bonding

3.3.2: Phase 1: Initialization

3.3.3: Phase 2: Order Construction

3.3.4: Phase 3: Order Publishing

3.3.5: Phase 4: Order Fulfillment

3.3.5.1: Contract Execution
3.3.5.2: Complex Contracts
3.3.5.3: External Resources
3.3.5.4: Failure Modes
3.3.5.4.1: Timeout
3.3.5.4.2: Fraud
3.3.5.4.3: State Collapse
3.3.5.4.4: Chain Re-organization

3.3.6: Phase 5: Contract Finality

3.4: State Machine

As all programs in Fabric are modeled as finite-state graphs, the Fabric State Machine (FSM)

3.4.4: Visualizer

Directed graphs such as Fabric's computational model can easily be rep

3.4.5: Flow-Based Programming

Originally invented by J. Paul Morrison

4: Language

Fabric utilizes a simple syntax for denoting program behavior, named "Purity".

application example { # `application` with parameter `example`
  start 0 # call `start` with parameter `0`
  add example # call `add` with parameter `example`
}

The above program represents a simple addition function, with syntactic sugar added for familiarity. Curly braces are optional, but indentation must be used within definitions. More simply:

application example
  start 0
  add example

Running the above program is as follows:

⚡ example 1
Running [8ee89711330c1ccf39a2e65ad12bbd7df4a4a2ee857f53b4823f00fecb7bd252]…
Δ 1

As expected, the primitive identify function 1 returns itself, 1 . Let's try adding two numbers.

⚡ example example 1
Running [1b5879d683819f2a623049e9d0e4bd954d9f228da000d2774f58652af1f3c882]…
Δ 2

Great! We've incremented an integer. You might notice that the middle line has also changed — Fabric identifies all programs by the hash of their source code.

contract {
  // identity
  function identity (a) ⇒ a
  // unit
  function unit ⇒ start! // behavior needs to be defined
  // compositions
  function compose (a b) ⇒ a & b
  // products
  function pair (a b) ⇒ [a b]
  function take (unit a b) ⇒ a
  function drop (unit a b) ⇒ b
  // sums
  function injl (a b) ⇒ b | c
  function injr (a b) ⇒ a | c
  function case (a b) ⇒ 1 | 0
}

5: Components

6: Security

7: Scalability

As signatures are aggregated into fixed-size

8: Economics

Resources are scarce. Incentives in Fabric are aligned such that resources are maximally utilized, providing monetary value in exchange for meaningful work. Network capacity including processing power, random-access memory, long-term storage, and various highly-specialized services is by definition unknowable, but all participants are rewarded for efficient utilization of their available resources.

8.1 Routing

Fabric leverages these market economics to encourage a healthy network topology, rewarding participants for detecting and repairing inefficient routes.

9: Drawbacks

Existing platforms have gained varying degrees of traction, fragmenting attention across a number of disparate initiatives. Any such system can only function effectively at scale, so it is likely that a lower bounds exists for a desired security threshold.

10: Applications

10.1: Example RPG

An Example ARC MPC (Layer 2) ARC (Layer 3) Trust Anchor (Layer 1) /users /assets 1000 SAT /items CREATE { id } /transactions 100.00 INK (100 @ 1) to: /universes/{id} /instances ISSUE { id: '/items{id}' } /players BUY /items/{id} (1.00 INK) PUBLISH { id }

An Example ARC MPC (Layer 2) ARC (Layer 3) Trust Anchor (Layer 1) /users /assets 1000 SAT /items CREATE { id } /transactions 100.00 INK (100 @ 1) to: /universes/{id} /instances ISSUE { id: '/items{id}' } /players BUY /items/{id} (1.00 INK) PUBLISH { id }

application RPG {
"/users" ⇒ "/assets" [label="1000 SAT"]
"/items" ⇒ "/transactions" [label=" 100.00 INK (100 @ 1)\nto: /universes/{id}"]
"/users" ⇒ "/items" [label=" CREATE { id }"]
"/items" ⇒ "/instances" [label=" ISSUE { id: '/items{id}' }"]
"/instances" ⇒ "/players" [label=" BUY /items/{id} (1.00 INK)"]
"/players" ⇒ "/transactions" [label=" PUBLISH { id }"]
subgraph cluster_mpc {
label = "MPC (Layer 2)"
"/assets"
"/items"
}
subgraph cluster_arc {
label = "ARC (Layer 3)"
"/instances"
"/players"
"/transactions"
}
subgraph cluster_anchor {
label = "Trust Anchor (Layer 1)"
"/users"
}
}

11: Future Work

12: Conclusion

Fabric implements a peer-to-peer network over which participants may define arbitrary types, compose them into more complex programs, and provide meaningful services to users — all without requiring a trusted third party. Rather than relying on a server, applications deployed to Fabric are "offline first", allowing them to operate independent of network availability or consensus.

Appendix A: Ephemera In contrast with other networks, Fabric does not require network consensus or otherwise . Consumers of Fabric applications maintain explicit control over the content they consume, and, instead of being forced to form a quorum with their peers, may in fact deliver value to the network by sharing their content moderation decisions in exchange for subscriber subsidies. We introduce this emergent concept as a "Fuzzchain", where there is no single source of "truth", instead being replaced by a more individually-oriented "perspective" of truth. In aggregate, these truths become quite "fuzzy", requiring a specific frame of reference to discern a relative truth. Fabric facilitates this value exchange by using cryptographic tokens, which provide a medium of exchange that is free of outside influence or external requirements. Bitcoin The emergence of Bitcoin, a new peer-to-peer digital cash system in 2008 by Satoshi Nakamoto, catalyzed the development of what is now a burgeoning industry surrounding digital payments, identity, and information security. Fabric would not be possible without a reliable, independentlysecured value token, and Bitcoin has to date achieve the widest success [cite: network size] and greatest security [cite: hash power] in this field. For this reason, we explicitly select the Bitcoin as the bond that secures all Fabric contracts. Bitcoin works by enforcing a quorum of majority rule, whereby voting on the state of a shared database takes place in the form of a "proof of work". To vote on the consensus is to provide computational capacity towards the security of the network, expending energy to complete proofs in exchange for the minting of new value tokens, known as "bitcoins", which ostensibly represent the amount of energy spent in their creation. This clever arrangement of incentives allows for the implementation of a triple-entry accounting system, wherein changes to the ledger must be broadcast publicly to the entire network and are subsequently independently verified for correctness by every participant before being relayed to the next. Once a modification has been verified, it can then move to a second phase, the "commit", whereby it and other currently outstanding transactions are appended in a new "page" to the ledger, known as a "block". This is isomorphic to the two-phase commit introduced by J. Gray [Gray78] in 1978. With the addition of proof of work, Bitcoin presents a security profile reasonably defensible against outside parties, arranging a set of incentive mechanisms that ensure fair participation while keeping it reasonably secure against irrational or outright malicious participants. We find that the Bitcoin network demonstrates the principle that security of a network is directly correlated with the decentralization of the network, and also that the security of a network is function of its size [cite: altcoin failures]. Fabric requires such a system, and cannot provide provable fairness without it. Information Markets Fundamentally, Fabric aims to facilitate an information market. By addressing content across the network, and furthermore positively identifying it by utilizing cryptographic hashes, we can construct a market for information with the addition of an intrinsic payment mechanism. Actors participating in this market can independently price the delivery of the data, and consumers of these information bundles can independently choose which data provider they'd like to retrieve the data from. We can think of Fabric in economic terms as a clearing house for computational resources, wherein contracts (termed "Service Contracts") are broadcast and claimed by individual actors on the network. These contracts can have varying levels of complexity, and are paid for by the consumers most interested in their results. Payments between nodes on the network are made using the Bitcoin network, specifically using a special construction of transactions termed "duplex payment channels". This allows for a zero-risk commitment of monetary value, in addition to offering an extremely high rate of change – to be broadcast and committed to the Bitcoin transaction only once, at the end of a peer session (or longer). Provable Fairness principle of isolation perfect hashing (uniformity guarantees) Bitcoin works by establishing a linked list of finalized pages, known as "blocks", in a distributed ledger, the "blockchain". Actors within the network perform a resource-intensive operation in competition with one another to derive newly-minted tokens, known as "bitcoins", in an operation that is difficult to duplicate, but trivial to verify. The allocation of new tokens in this system is known as the "block subsidy", and it is the incentive mechanism by which outside parties are rewarded for providing the network with security through their efforts. The Semantic Web Timothy Berners-Lee introduced the idea of hypertext in 198~ [citation needed]. With it came the promise of a new era of context in the blossoming world of interconnected networks. Other, similar ideas emerged at roughly the same time, including Project Xanadu and ??? [citation needed]. With the introduction of XMLHTTPRequest by Microsoft in ??? [citation needed], the doors to a new era of the Web opened as new, interesting, and compelling use-cases became possible like never before. A new wave of dynamic "shell" applications that had the ability to modify documents after they had been retrieved emerged, including Twitter, MySpace, Friendster [???] [citation needed]. However, these applications very quickly became isolated silos with barely-working interfaces for integration, as their proprietary bundles of application-specific code had finite, acute focii. A resurgent effort to restore the interoperability provided by purely semantic markup languages such as HTML gave birth to initiatives such as Microformats and later Schema.org [citation needed], but the overhead of their implementations gave too much resistance to their adoption. Architecture Trust Model Users of the Fabric protocol are expected to share a trust anchor with their direct peers, which in most cases will be the Bitcoin blockchain. Other systems can be used should both parties trust the same entity, but our work has determined Bitcoin to be the most secure and likely to succeed over time. On the other end of the spectrum, models may be constructed which require the trust of a centralized Oracle, but for our purposes we assume all market participants maintain an up-to-date copy of the Bitcoin blockchain. Fabric relies the Zero Knowledge Contingent Payment ("ZKCP") approach used by Gregory Maxwell et al to trustlessly purchase the solution to a Sudoku Puzzle, the first public demonstration of such a transaction using the Bitcoin protocol. Example ZKCP OP_SHA256 OP_EQUAL OP_IF

OP_ELSE

OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY OP_DROP

OPENDIF OP_CHECKSIG Messaging Alan Kay introduced the idea of messaging .... Today we observe many derivatives of this model, including that of the Actor Model citation needed. A messaging system provides .... It does not, however, provide any mechanism for ordering. This is desirable when developing asynchronous systems. However, for conflict resolution, one might want to identify which particular message came first. This leaves us with the timestamping problem. Protocol The Fabric protocol implements a mechanism for representing a largely intangible idea, trust, as a pre-established commitment in a slightly more tangible fashion, a value token. If a network is composed primarily of honest, friendly nodes, then commitments increase over time until the updates provided by the network cease to be valuable. Should a node cease being honest, it destroys its ability to increase in value over time. Security Contract Signatures Transactions as Functions Given a transaction set _t, there should also be a correlating inverse transaction set t^-1 such that the state of a database prior to the application of t can be completely derived after its application by applying t^-1. Further, individual patchsets, should be composable functions, with equivalent inverse functions. Fuzzchains (WIP) Since the constraint of a finite limit on information (such as a limit on token supply) is not present in an information market, new information can be introduced at any time, To implement a distributed datastore on a peer-to-peer basis without compromising the freedom of speech of any individual node, we must remove the constraint of consensus from the network. Without a need to enforce the availability of specific transaction sets, we can derive a new type of blockchain we term a "fuzzchain". This fuzzchain allows for many divergent sequences of chains, which may or may not be in conflict at any point in time. Multi-Party Computations Applications The application layer of Fabric is the implementation of the underlying Resource contract. We provide Maki, a reference implementation of the Application Resource Contracts (ARC) protocol, Resources Fabric's Semantic Linkability Since Fabric exposes Resources in a descriptive fashion, programs deplo can discover and interact with one another. By requesting a resource from a namespace other than one's own, information can cross the boundaries of individual applications and other interesting combinations of data can be constructed. Furthermore, since applications can be described in their entirety with a simple contract, applications can discover one anothers' behaviors and resource definitions. This can be used to build various forms of semantic interoperability, potentially including new forms of search engine behaviors. Two-Way Links on the Web An Introduction to Channels The Web we know today is built on a simple construct: the tag. In HTML, the a stands for anchor — a point of reference, or hyperlink. Using these hyperlinks, we've been able to navigate content published on the web contextually — that is to say, we can choose to dig deeper into a "linked" subject based on the context provided. This has proven helpful to the curious explorer, as the Web opened up the wealth of human knowledge to a greater extent than ever before. But what of the two-way conversation? How can a reader submit an improvement to the author's content in a meaningful way? How can a publisher expect to be notified of reader feedback, in comment form or even a proposal? How can we collaborate on content constructively? Mutations Once an application's underlying Resources are defined, their state can be manipulated in an atomic fashion. Arbitrary rules can be defined about the validity of a mutation, including various authorization models. Mutation Blocks Fabric, in contrast to traditional proof-of-work mechanisms, does not require work to be bundled into "blocks". Instead, consensus is achieved through the bundling of atomic mutations to the chain state. These atomic operations are rolled up into groupings called, perhaps inconveniently, "transactions". These transactions are isomorphic to traditional blockchain transactions, in that either a block is valid or it is not, as determined by the component operations it contains. If any one operation is invalid, so too must be the block. Yao, Andrew C. ”Protocols for secure computations.” 2013 IEEE 54th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science. IEEE, 1982. Baum, Carsten, Ivan Damgrd, and Claudio Orlandi. ”Publicly auditable secure multi-party computation.” Security and Cryptography for Networks. Springer International Publishing,

  1. 175-196. Cohen, Gil, et al. ”Efficient multiparty protocols via log-depth threshold formulae.” Advances in CryptologyCRYPTO 2013. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013. 185-202. Guy Zyskind, Oz Nathan, Alex ’Sandy’ Pentland. "Enigma: Decentralized Computation Platform with Guaranteed Privacy" MIT

TODO: include content hashes of links as they appear at document compilation time.

OTHER CITATIONS TO INCLUDE: [bitcoin]: http://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf [capability-based systems]: ??? [capability-based financial systems]: http://www.cypherpunks.to/erights/elib/capability/ode/ode.pdf